Seborrhea (seborrheic dermatitis or eczema) is an inflammatory disease affecting areas of the dermis with impaired sebum secretion. It is chronic and characterized by seasonal exacerbations. More than 5% of the world’s population is diagnosed.
Seborrheic dermatitis occurs at any age, but more often it affects adolescents during puberty. Among adults, men from 20 to 45 years are more susceptible to eczema.
What are the causes of seborrheic dermatitis? The leading role in the development of the disease is assigned to yeast-like lipophilic fungi of the species Malassezia. Normally, these saprophytes are part of a healthy human microflora, but under the influence of adverse conditions, the body can no longer keep them in a passive state. The result is a hyperactivation of the fungus, and, as a result, inflammation of the skin with the development of seborrhea.
Provocative factors for the formation of seborrhea are:
hormonal disruptions in the direction of the predominance of androgens;
poor nutrition with a lack of vitamins, frequent diets;
stress, physical overload;
long-term use of anabolic steroids, testosterone, glucocorticosteroids;
At risk for dermatitis are people who have suffered spinal injuries, paralysis and paresis, suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Often, pathology develops in persons working under conditions of constant mental and nervous overstrain. In addition, the direct relationship between the immunodeficiency virus and seborrheic dermatitis is noted – in HIV-infected eczema is observed 5 times more often, and in AIDS patients – 9 times more often than in healthy people.
What does seborrheic dermatitis look like? The severity and manifestation of symptoms of the disease depends on the type and location of the sites of inflammation.
Seborrhea of the skin of the face is manifested by abundant rash in the forehead, nose, eyebrows, nasolabial triangle. The affected areas redden, irritate and itch. Other symptoms of seborrhea appear:
the composition of sebum is disturbed, it becomes viscous and thick;
acne and pimples develop;
the face begins to shine, the pores expand;
the skin is covered with small whitish flakes with dry seborrhea or large yellowish scales with oily.
scaly patches merge to form lesions.
If the eyelids and periorescent region are drawn into the inflammatory process, blepharitis symptoms appear. If seborrheic dermatitis is complicated by bacterial microflora, there are pustules and weeping areas of the skin.
Disease of the face is most often registered in men and women who suffer from hormonal or endocrine disabilities.
The leading symptom of seborrheic dermatitis of the head is dandruff. It may be dry or oily and may be accompanied by other signs of the disease:
peeling of the skin;
the formation of yellowish crusts;
thinning and hair loss.
If the disease becomes long lasting, seborrhea of the scalp often ends in diffuse alopecia (alopecia).
Eczema on the body is localized. Foci of inflammation, represented by a pink rash and peeling, usually form on the chest and between the shoulder blades. In the process of development, the pathological elements merge and form large plaques with clear edges.
If a bacterial pathogen joins eczema, seborrheic dermatitis on the body is complemented by the following symptoms:
irritation and itching develop;
skin becomes covered with painful abscesses;
a crust and cracks appear on the surface of the epithelium.
Many patients note that the signs of seborrhea are greatly exacerbated by eating spicy and spicy dishes, excessive passion for sweets and carbonated drinks.
Seborrheic dermatitis of the skin occurs in areas of the body where most sebaceous glands are concentrated:
eyebrows, eyelashes and forehead;
scalp and skin behind the ears;
shoulders and interscapular area;
But this is not a complete list of places of occurrence of seborrhea. Other sites with increased sebum secretion may also be involved in the disease process. In especially difficult cases, a generalized type of eczema develops, affecting most of the body.
Seborrheic dermatitis in adults occurs in several forms. Each of them has its own symptoms and affects a certain group of people.
With this type of dermatosis, sebaceous excretions can be thick and fluid. The first form of secretion is observed in males in the puberty or youthful period. Accompanied by the appearance of purulent, painful acne in the cheekbones and chin, often the skin on the chest and back is affected.